The latest edition of the MLA Handbook (8th ed.) by the Modern Language Association was published in 2016 and includes some drastic changes to MLA format. Different source types no longer have different formats. MLA updated their style to accommodate the digital publication era, where a work can be published and shared in many different formats with ease. MLA now utilizes a list of core elements arranged in a particular order. The type of source you use will dictate which core elements you use. For more information about this change please visit the links below:
General format for any citation
Author. Title. Title of container (self contained if book), Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs, URL, or DOI). 2nd container’s title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).
Examples for specific sources
|Book, one or two authors||
Bennett, Brit. The Vanishing Half. Riverhead Books, 2020.
Book, two authors
(First author is last name, first name; second author appears in first name last name format)
|Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Allyn and Bacon, 2000.|
|Book, three or more authors||Robbins, Chandler S., et al. Birds of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. Golden, 1966.|
|Book, with Translator or other contributors||Homer. The Odyssey. Translated by Stanley Lombardo, Hackett Publishing Company, 2000.|
|A work (e.g essay, short story) in an anthology or compilation||Seale, Maura. "Information Literacy Standards and the Politics of Knowledge Production." Critical Library Instruction: Theories and Methods, edited by Emily Drabinski, Alana Kumbier, and Maria Accardi, Library Juice Press, 2010, pp.221-235.|
|Article in an online database||Miller, Matthew J., et al. "College Students' Social Justice Interest and Commitment: A Social-Cognitive Perspective." Journal of Counseling Psychology, vol. 56, no. 4, 2009, pp. 495-507, doi:10.1037/a0017220.|
|Article in a print journal||Hannah, Daniel K. "The Private Life, the Public Stage: Henry James in Recent Fiction." Journal of Modern Literature, vol.30, no.3, 2007, pp. 70-94.|
|Article (web page) on a website|
|Webpage (whole site)||Farkas, Meredith. Information Wants to Be Free. Jun. 2015, meredith.wolfwater.com.|
For more information on MLA citation formats, consult:
MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016, New York.