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Citation Styles: APA Style (7th edition)

APA Style Manual Updates

The latest edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) includes some noteworthy changes:

  • Publisher location is no longer included.
  • DOI’s (Digital Object Identifiers) or URLs will be inserted at the end of a citation when appropriate and available. 
  • One space after the period.
  • They (the plural pronoun) is now considered acceptable single pronoun usage. The APA is dedicated to equitable and inclusive pronouns. 



GENERAL FORMAT Last Name, First Initial. (YearPublished). Title of Book. Publisher.
One author Pinney, T. (2005). History of wine in America: From prohibition to the present. University of California Press.
Two authors Reis, A., & Trout, J. (1993). The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing. Harper Business.
Book Chapter Konishi, S. (2001). Representing Aborignal masculininy in Howard's Australia. In R.L. Jackson II and M. Balaji (Eds.), Masculinities and manhood (pp. 161-185). University of Illinois Press.
Three to Twenty authors Almond, D., Colfer, E., Doyle, R., Ellis, D., Hornby, N., Lanagan, M., Maguire, G., Ozeki, R., Park, L.S., & Wynn-Jones, T. (2007). Click. Arthur A. Levine Books.
Editors Donohue, J. J., & Esposito, J. L. (Eds.). (2007). Islam in transition: Muslim perspectivesOxford University Press.
Electronic version of print book Verrill, A. H. (1916). Marooned in the forest: The story of a primitive fight for life [Hathi Trust Digital Library version].
Essay or chapter in an anthology or edited book Porter, K. A. (1995). The grave. In S. Mee (Ed.), Downhome: An anthology of Southern women writers (pp. 461-67). Harcourt, Brace.
Translated book Foucault, M. (1988). Madness and civilization: A history of insanity in the age of reason (R. Howard, Trans.). Vintage-Random House. (Original work published 1965).
Multi-volume work Ford, B. (Ed.). (1988-91). The Cambridge guide to the arts in Britain (Vols. 1-9). Cambridge University Press.
Encyclopedia article

Escobar, E. (2004). Zoot suit. In The encyclopedia of Latino popular culture (Vol. 2, pp. 898-899). Greenwood Press.

Edition other than the first

Shakur, A. (2014). Assata: An Autobiography (#2). Zed.

Group Author

Oxford University Press. (2003). Reparación. In Oxford's Spanish Dictionary (3rd ed., pp 715). Oxford University Press.

Articles and Periodicals



A Digital Object Identifier, or DOI, is a unique, static number assigned to a particular article. Since the URLs assigned to online documents can potentially change, the designation of DOIs allows users to locate an article regardless of which database the article comes from. Many--but not all--publishers provide a DOI on the first page of an article.

  • When used as an acronym, DOI is written in all caps. When listed as a part of a citation, it is written in lowercase: doi.
  • DOI’s (Digital Object Identifiers) or URLs will be inserted at the end of a citation when appropriate and available. DOI’s are also accepted shortened using, you can search for a shortened form of your DOI there OR if there is not one currently available, it will create one for you. The complete DOI link (OR other website) is also allowed to be active/live for any assignment that is being electronically delivered. If the paper is in print, the link should not be active. Also, if you are able to locate a DOI for a book, include it at the end of the citation after the publisher.
Last Name, First Initial. (YearPublished). Title of Article. Title of Book/Journal, VolumeNumber(IssueNumber), PageNumbers. DOI or URL.
Article from library database or electronic journal (when DOI is not available)

Bullock-Jordan, K. (1998). Queer reflections on the Black Radical Congress. Gay Community News, 24(1), 1-14.

Article from library database or electronic journal (when DOI is available) Morio, H., & Buchholz, C. (2008). How anonymous are you online? Examining online social behaviors from a cross-cultural perspective. AI & Society, 23(2), 297-307. doi:10.1007/s00146-007-0143-0
Article from newspaper

Sample, J. (2018, September 27). 28,000 Public servants sought student loan forgiveness. 96 got it. New York Times.

  • When retrieving an article from a well-known website, such as The New York Times, only the site’s domain name is needed (in this case,
  • When retrieving an article from a less well-known website, list the full URL.
Journal article Wood, S. N., & Quackenbush, K. (2001). The sorcerer's stone: A touchstone for readers of all ages. English Journal, 90(3), 97-103.
Newspaper article Curwen, T. (2011, August 9). Calligraphers still going against type. Los Angeles Times, pp. A1, A8.
Magazine article Yeoman, B. (September-October 2011). Facing the future. Audubon, 64-69, 86-87.
Book review Miner, V. (2004, December). Iowa meditations [Review of the book Gilead, 2004]. The Women's Review of Books, 22, 19.

More than Twenty authors

(No more than twenty names in the citation)

*Pegion, K., Kirtman, B. P., Becker, E., Collins, D. C., LaJoie, E., Burgman, R., Bell, R., DelSole, R., Min, D., Zhu, Y., Li, W., Sinsky, E., Guan, H., Gottschalck, J., Metzger, E. J., Barton, N. P., Achuthavarier, D., Marshak, J., Koster, R., . . .  Kim, H. (2019). The subseasonal experiment (SubX): A multimodel subseasonal prediction experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100(10), 2043-2061.

*Example taken from:









Last Name, First Initial. (Year Month Date). Title of post. Publisher. URL

Webpage (Individual)

Cullors, P. (2020). Patrisse Cullors: Artist, organizer, freedom fighter. Patrisse Cullors.
Webpage (Group) The Okra  Project. (n.d.). We are the Okra Project. The Okra Project.
Webpage (Organization) Library Freedom Project. (n.d.). Library Freedom. Library Freedom Institute.
Blog post  Zúniga, M. M. (2006, August 24). Bush's latest PR hoax. Daily Kos.
Tweet Thede, R. [@robinthede]. (2020, June 28). I would like to offer something that some of you don't understand that could help in the effort of eradicating racist behavior [Tweet]. Twitter.

Audio & Visual Materials


GENERAL FORMAT Director Last Name, First Initital. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Film]. Production company.
Film/Motion picture Duvernay, A. (Director). (2016). 13th [Film]. Kandoo Films.
Music Album Marley, B. (1977). Exodus [Album]. Island Tuff Gong.
Podcast Series Buzzfeed (Executive Producer). (2015-2017). Another round [Audio podcast]. Panopoly Media.   
Ted Talk Mason-Hogans, D. (2020, June 17). Why the way we tell stories and document history is a social justice issue. TEDx CHAPEL HILL. Retrieved from
TV Series Rae, I. (Executive Producer). (2019-present). A Black Lady Sketch Show [TV series]. Issa Rae Productions.
YouTube Video Graduate Center, The City College of New York. (2018, June 22). LGBTQ pride month: A conversation with Patrisse Cullors-2018 Josè Muñoz Award [YouTube].

Citation Style Manual

For more information on APA citation formats, consult the APA manual located at the Course Reserves, Services Desk:

American Psychological Association (2020). The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. American Psychological Association.    Course Reserves, Services Desk BF76.7 .P83 2020


More examples of APA style can be found online:

From OWL at Purdue University
From Northern Michigan University
From Ohio State University

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