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Philosophy: Reference

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Handbooks, Guides and Companions

Why Use Reference Books?

Use reference books (encylopedias, handbooks, dictionaries etc.) to get an overview of topics you may be interested in researching. The more background information you have on a topic of interest, the more you will be able to think of promising research questions.  The information in reference books tends to be factual or widely accepted information, rather than critical and or debatable information and ideas.

Gale Virtual Reference Library

  • a collection of reference books
  • something on most topics
  • a good starting point

Online Resources

Past Masters 

A Collection of digitized materials on different topics and philosophers

  • Aquinas
  • Bentham
  • British Philosophy: 1600- 1900
  • Continental RationalistsFichte
  • Hegel
  • Hobbes
  • Kant
  • Locke
  • Wittgenstein

Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names

Marxists Internet Archive

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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